# Monday, March 31, 2008
                 

Winter sports such as snowboarding or skiing are a great way to stay active during the colder months. It's important though, to make sure you are properly equipped in order to prevent serious injuries. While the number of snowboarding injuries does not surpass injuries incurred while skiing, they do tend to be more severe. The number of snowboarding injuries in Canada has risen drastically in the past ten years, with 88% of injuries being sustained by those between the ages of 10-19, with 80% of those being male. Half of those injuries were fractures, with over 40% being to the arms. While traumatic brain injuries, as well as spinal cord injuries are rare, they are on the rise, probably from the rising rend of acrobatic and high-speed moves.

The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission estimates that in 1997 over 84,000 skiing injuries and over 37,000 snowboarding injuries were treated in various American emergency rooms. Out of those injuries over 17,000 were head injuries. Their studies have found that 11 skiing and/or snowboarding deaths could be prevented each year and over 7,000 head injuries could be either prevented or reduced in severity simply by using helmets. Many of these accidents occur due to loss of control; either moving too fast on the slopes or being on a slope that is beyond the skiers/snowboarders ability. In 1999 a new report was released showing that helmet use could prevent or reduce the severity of 44% of head injuries incurred by adults, and 53% of those incurred by children under the age of 15.

It is estimated that 25% of all snowboarding injuries occur during a person's first experience, and almost 50% occur during the first season of snowboarding. This is due to the fact that snowboarding is an extreme sport that requires balance and a stable stance on the board. As both feet are fixed in non-release bindings, ankles are susceptible to being injured as the snowboarder cannot "step" out when falling or colliding. This also leaves the upper extremities at high risk of injury as a person's natural instinct is to outstretch their hands in order to break the impending fall. It is essential that anyone learning how to snowboard takes lessons in order to learn the fundamentals, including how to fall properly in order to avoid these injuries.

It is important to have the right equipment in order to either prevent injuries, as well as lessen the severity of any injuries that may occur. The snowboard you use should be in good condition and is fitted for your weight, size, and skill. Purchase a helmet that is specifically designed for snowboarding; helmets designed for other purposes such as bicycling, will not give you enough protection, as well as being too heavy or bulky which can result in whiplash injuries. Snowboarding helmets consist of three layers and are cut higher in the back than in the front. The outer shell varies depending on the model you choose, but is designed to protect against any objects penetrating the shell. The middle layer consists of polystyrene, which will absorb shock during a fall. The inner layer is simply designed for warmth, so that no other headgear will be required. If your helmet has sustained a major blow, you will need to replace it. Make sure the helmet fits snugly and is comfortable.

Snowboarding boots come in three different types; each differs in the support they give to the ankle and foot. Soft boots are the most common type of boot used and offers good stability as well as flexibility. Hard boots are typically worn by racers. Hybrid boots offer the support of the hard boot, but with the comfort and maneuverability of soft boots. It is important to select the proper type of boot for the style of snowboarding you are participating in. Ankle injuries are more prevalent in those who wear soft boots due to their moderate ankle support; people who wear the hard boots however, are more at risk of knee injuries due to the lack of movement. Make sure that you buy the boots and bindings together as these are inter-related.

Wrist and elbow guards are also important to reduce fractures. Wrist guards that are used for inline skating or skateboarding can also be used for snowboarding. Knee and tailbone pads are very important for beginners, as falling backwards is more apt to happen when learning to snowboard.

If you are traveling to Canada, or are a Canadian traveling outside the country to participate in snowboarding, it's important to make sure that your travel insurance will cover any injuries sustained in this activity. Certain travel insurance policies will not reimburse medical bills that are a result of these types of injuries; you may require Adventure Travel insurance. Make sure to check with your broker before you leave to make sure you have the right coverage.

posted on Monday, March 31, 2008 10:28:11 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)  #   
# Monday, March 17, 2008
                 

Skin Cancer Prevention

Many Canadians are escaping the cold winter months by traveling to countries that have a warmer climate. It's important when enjoying your time in the sunshine to make sure you are not exposing your skin to potentially harmful UV rays, which can increase your risk of skin cancer. As children and infants are especially at risk due to having sensitive skin, precautions need to be taken.

Skin cancer is the one form of cancer that can be prevented. There are 3 types of skin cancer: basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant carcinoma. The first two are the most prevalent forms of skin cancer found in Canadians. They tend to develop later in life on areas of the skin that have been repeatedly exposed to the sun such as the face, neck, and/or hands. They are rarely fatal as it is uncommon for this form of cancer to spread to other areas of the body. Minor surgery easily removes the affected areas of skin. Malignant melanomas on the other hand, are quite fatal as they progress very rapidly and can develop on virtually any part of the body. This form of skin cancer also occurs a lot earlier in life and accounts for 5% of people affected by skin cancer.

Everyone is at some risk of developing melanoma, but certain factors can determine if you are at an increased level of risk. These are:

• Exposure to the sun. UVA as well as UVB rays are dangerous to skin health and can induce skin cancer. Blistering sunburns in early childhood as well as cumulative exposure are factors that can increase your risk of developing skin cancer. This applies to both natural sun and tanning booths.
• Moles. Most people have small brown moles or "beauty marks" that appear in the first several decades of life. These are normal moles which are harmless. Atypical moles however, can be dangerous. Also known as dysplastic nevi, these are moles or patches of skin that are abnormally dark, or moles that are bleeding, crusting or changing in their color, size, and/or shape. These should be checked immediately by your physician. It's important to realize that regardless of type, the more moles you have, the greater your risk is for melanoma.
• Skin type. People with fairer skin are more at risk for all forms of skin cancer.
• Family history. It's estimated that one out of ten patients diagnosed with skin cancer has a family member who has also had it. Therefore, it's important to know if your parents, siblings or children have been diagnosed with melanoma, as you are in a melanoma-prone family. A person who has a first-degree relative with melanoma has a fifty percent greater chance of developing skin cancer than those with no family history of the disease. You also have a slight increase in risk if anyone such as aunts, unless, cousins, grandparents, etc. have had skin cancer.
• Your own personal medical history. Having any form of skin cancer automatically increases your risk of occurrence. People with a compromised immune system that is a result from chemotherapy, organ transplant or HIV/AIDS are also at a higher risk level for melanoma.

The main cause of skin cancer is exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV rays). These rays cause skin cancer by directly damaging skin cells, as well as weakening the immune mechanisms in the skin. Consequently, most cases of skin cancer can be prevented by limiting your exposure to UV rays. Things you can do to minimize your exposure are:

• Try and spend time in the shade when outdoors during the hottest parts of the day
• If you're spending long periods of time in the sun, wear a broad-rimmed hat, as well as clothing that has a tight weave, and covers your skin
• Use sunscreen with a Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of at least 15 and offers both UVA and UVB protection. You should apply sunscreen 15-30 minutes before going in the sun, as well as 15-30 minutes after exposure. Make sure to reapply often after swimming, vigorous activity, or toweling off.
• Certain medications can make your skin more sensitive to UV rays, so read the labels and inserts for all your medications. If you're still unsure, consult with your physician or pharmacist.

If you are taking infants and/or children outside follow the above recommendations as well as:

• Never letting infants or young children play or sleep in the sun in a playpen, stroller, or carriage.
• Even when wearing sunscreen, do not let your children stay in direct sun for long periods of time.
• Make sure your children are wearing plenty of sunscreen, and reapply often as they are more active then most adults which can make it wear off more quickly.

Make sure to regularly check for any changes in moles on your skin, if you think there has been any sort of change, consult with your physician.

posted on Monday, March 17, 2008 1:22:22 PM (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)  #   
# Saturday, March 1, 2008
                 

Living With Chronic Pain

Every year, millions of Canadians suffer from chronic pain. More than half of these Canadians do not receive adequate treatment to alleviate this devastating pain. A recent study actually showed that in one large Canadian medical centre the majority of patients who were in moderate to severe pain were not even asked by medical staff if they were in pain. Statistics Canada has recently released a study which showed that over 25% of Canadian seniors who live at home, and nearly 40% who reside in a institution are living with chronic pain, severe enough that it interferes with daily life.

While pain is a natural part of everyone's life, chronic pain has distinct characteristics. There are 2 basic types of pain, acute and chronic, which are very different from each other.

Acute Pain: Results usually from disease, inflammation or injury to tissues. It generally comes on quickly, i.e. after surgery or trauma. It may be accompanied by emotional distress and/or high anxiety levels. The cause of acute pain can usually be quickly diagnosed and treated. As well, the pain is usually confined to a given period of time as well as severity. Only in rare cases does acute pain become chronic.

Chronic Pain: Lasts for a much longer duration than acute pain and is more resistant to medical treatment. Chronic pain is widely believed to represent disease itself, and can be made much worse by environmental as well as psychological factors. Chronic pain can be a result of an initial accident such as sprained back, infection, or can be the result of an ongoing condition such as cancer, arthritis. Chronic pain can also occur without any previous injuries and/or evidence of body damage. Severe and frequent migraines can also fit into this category.

There is no test that tells a physician just how much pain a person is in, or how intense their pain is. The physician can ask questions about whether the pain is dull or sharp, location, burning or aching, etc, but these are only general indicators. Physicians can however, use technology to find the source of the pain. The most common are:

Electrodiagnostic Procedures: Electromyography (EMG), nerve conduction studies, and evoked potential (EP) studies can help physicians tell precisely which nerves and/or muscles are affected by pain and/or weakness. EMG consists of thin needles being inserted into the muscles so the physician can see or listen to the electrical signals displayed. Nerve conduction studies involve the use of two sets of electrodes that are placed on the skin over the muscles. The first set sends a mild shock that stimulates the nerve that runs to the muscle. The second set makes a recording of the nerve's electrical signals, from which the physician is able to detect nerve damage. EP test follow the same theory, but with the second set of electrodes set on the patient's scalp in order to determine the speed of nerve transmission to the brain.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A MRI provides the physician with pictures of the body's tissues and structures, which can help determine where and why pain is occurring.

Neurological Exams and X-Rays: The physician will test movement, reflexes, balance, sensation as well as coordination. X-rays will show if any bones or joints are the cause of the chronic pain.

It is important for those who suffer from chronic pain to communicate effectively with their physician in order to receive the appropriate treatment and relief. Many different people in the medical field may be helpful in pain management, includes nurse, physiotherapists, psychologists, and occupational therapists, as well as your physician. If needed, your family doctor can refer you to a pain specialist if the pain is not self-resolving. To help your physician give you the proper care, be prepared for your appointments. By keeping a daily pain diary, and recording the amount of pain, the time it occurred and what you did to alleviate this pain get be a great assistance to your doctor. Make sure to use descriptive words such as throbbing, stabbing, burning, aching, tingling, dull, sharp, deep, pressing etc as well as rating it from 1 to 10. As well, keep a list of any and all medications that you take or have taken for pain control. It can also be helpful to list any activities you participated in either just before or at the onset of the pain.

Chronic pain can be managed in different ways, depending on the individual. This can be achieved usually through the proper pain medications, as well as such therapies as acupuncture, massage and chiropractic treatment. Some of the most common ways drugs that physicians use to treat chronic pain are:

Analgesics: The class of drugs that includes most painkillers such as aspirin, acetaminophen and ibuprofen. It is used in most nonprescription medications for mild to moderate pain.

Anticonvulsants: Usually used for seizure disorders, but can be effective for pain that is associated with neuropathic origins.

Antidepressants: Depression is now being associated with chronic pain, especially back pain. Some antidepressants in the psychotropic drug class can be used for treating both conditions. Some anti-anxiety drugs also contain muscle relaxants, and can be effective as well.

Antimigraine Medications: These medications are only for people who suffer from serious and/or frequent migraine headaches. The are only available by prescription, and should only be used under a physician's care, as some do have serious side effects.

COX-2 inhibitors: Used for the treatment of arthritis pain. These drugs are relatively new to the market, and have not yet been tested for long-term side effects. They do, however, seem to lessen some of the negative side effects commonly associated with older anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDS).

Nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS): These drugs are effective for relieving pain by reducing the inflammation in the affected tissues. These can however, cause some people to suffer from upset stomachs.

Opoids: The oldest class of drugs known to mankind; they derive from the poppy plant. Codeine is a very mild form of opoid; morphine is one of the strongest forms of this drug. Opiates are a narcotic, and can induce sedation as well as pain relief. Opiates are physically addictive, and should only be taken with a physician's supervision and monitoring. Opiates do have such side effects as nausea (including vomiting in some cases) and constipation.

Methods other than medication can also be an effective measure to combat chronic pain. These may be used alone, or in conjunction with pain medication, depending on the individual.

Acupuncture: Is a traditional Oriental method of healing which involves applying needles to precise parts of the body. Although some consider this method controversial, it has been a popular method to help various conditions.

Biofeedback: Used mostly for headaches and back pain. A special electronic machine is used to train the patient to become aware of and ultimately control certain body functions. By learning to control things such muscle tension, heart rate and skin temperature, the patient will be able to effect a change in their response to pain by using techniques such as relaxation exercises.

Chiropractic: This can be very effective for those with acute lower back pain and other back disorders. This involves a licensed chiropractor manually manipulating the spine.

Counseling/Therapy: Psychological help and support can help patients by giving them much need coping skills to deal with chronic pain. Support groups can be helpful for those going through multiple surgical procedures as well as diseases such as cancer.

Physical Therapy/Rehabilitation: Exercise, massage, and/or manipulation can help not only alleviate pain, but help to speed up recovery from certain injuries.

It's important to let your physician know if you are experiencing pain that doesn’t seem to go away, or appears for no particular reason, as it may be symptomatic of a serious condition. There is no one specific cure for chronic pain; one of the above methods, as well as a combination of methods may be the right choice for you.

Many individual health insurance plans, as well as employee benefits packages offer coverage for not only the prescription costs, but for non-medicinal treatments. If you do not currently have coverage for such items as chiropractic visits, you can always enquire about adding these features to your current coverage.

 

posted on Saturday, March 1, 2008 2:14:36 PM (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)  #   
RSS 2.0